Management of perinatal depression by non-health specialist workers in Indonesia


  • Indah Rosmawatia University of Leeds, Leeds Institute of Health Sciences
  • Mahua Das University of Leeds, Leeds Institute of Health Sciences

Abstract views 1418 times


Perinatal depression, Psychotherapy, Perinatal mental health, Non-health specialist workers


Perinatal depression has become a public health concern because of the burden of the disease for mother and children as well as the community in large. The management of perinatal depression is needed, yet there is a low-resource of mental health specialist in Indonesia. Psychotherapy interventions by non-health specialist workers in some developing countries have shown benefits for perinatal depression. The study aims to analyze the interventions for perinatal depression by non-health specialist workers based on studies from other developing countries. The type of the study is an in-depth study using secondary data. Data were obtained from online databases, including PubMed, Global Health Cochrane Library, PsycINFO and additional search. The total number of studies found was 743, 705 studies were available for assessment after removing the duplicate, 55 abstracts were reviewed, and 42 studies included. A conceptual framework developed by the author was used to guide data collection and analysis. Psychotherapy interventions implemented in Pakistan, Turkey, China, and India were analyzed using Assessment of Applicability and Transferability criteria. The most applicable and transferable interventions for the management of perinatal depression in Indonesia were Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and participatory women group. This study indicates that interventions by non-health specialist workers could reduce the interventions gap for perinatal depression. The stakeholders are recommended to adapt the interventions into a cultural context and integrate it into existing maternal and child health program.


Baron, Emily C., Charlotte Hanlon, Sumaya Mall, Simone Honikman, Erica Breuer, Tasneem Kathree, and others, ‘Maternal Mental Health in Primary Care in Five Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Situational Analysis’, BMC Health Services Research, 16 (2016), 53 <>

Brittain, Kirsty, Landon Myer, Nastassja Koen, Sheri Koopowitz, Kirsten A. Donald, Whitney Barnett, and others, ‘Risk Factors for Antenatal Depression and Associations with Infant Birth Outcomes: Results From a South African Birth Cohort Study’, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 29 (2015), 505–14 <>

Buffet, C., Ciliska, D., & Thomas, H., ‘It Worked There. Will It Work Here? Tool for Assessing Applicability and Transferability of Evidence (A: When Considering Starting a New Program). Hamilton, ON: National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools.’, 2011 <> [accessed 6 July 2018]

Chowdhary, Neerja, Siham Sikander, Najia Atif, Neha Singh, Ikhlaq Ahmad, Daniela C. Fuhr, and others, ‘The Content and Delivery of Psychological Interventions for Perinatal Depression by Non-Specialist Health Workers in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review’, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 28 (2014), 113–33 <>

Dennis, Cindy-Lee, and Therese Dowswell, ‘Psychosocial and Psychological Interventions for Preventing Postpartum Depression’, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2013, CD001134 <>

Edwards, Glen, Naotaka Shinfuku, Martin Gittelman, Endang Ghozali, Fatimah Haniman, Sasanto Wibisono, and others, ‘Postnatal Depression in Surabaya, Indonesia’, International Journal of Mental Health, 35 (2006), 62–74 <>

Gao, Ling-ling, Sally Wai-chi Chan, and Ke Sun, ‘Effects of an Interpersonal-Psychotherapy- Oriented Childbirth Education Programme for Chinese First-Time Childbearing Women at 3- Month Follow up: Randomised Controlled Trial’, International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49 (2012), 274–81 <>

Kurniawan, E.S, Nyoman, R., Wayan, W., ‘Factors Lead to Depression during Antenatal Care Every Trimester of Pregnant Mother’, E-Jurnal Medika Udayana, 2 (2013), 502–14 <> [accessed 6 July 2018]

Ministry of Health of Indonesia. 2013, ‘Indonesia Health Country Profile’ <> [accessed 6 July 2018]

Najia, A., Karina, L. & Atif, R., ‘Maternal Mental Health: The Missing “m†in the Global Maternal and Child Health Agenda (Special Issue: Global Perinatal Medicine)’, 2015, 345–52

Rahman, A., R. Harrington, and J. Bunn, ‘Can Maternal Depression Increase Infant Risk of Illness and Growth Impairment in Developing Countries?’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 28 (2002), 51–56 <>

Rahman, Atif, Abid Malik, Siham Sikander, Christopher Roberts, and Francis Creed, ‘Cognitive Behaviour Therapy-Based Intervention by Community Health Workers for Mothers with Depression and Their Infants in Rural Pakistan: A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial’, The Lancet, 372 (2008), 902–9 <>

Sockol, Laura E., C. Neill Epperson, and Jacques P. Barber, ‘A Meta-Analysis of Treatments for Perinatal Depression’, Clinical Psychology Review, 31 (2011), 839–49 <>

Tezel, Ayfer, and Sebahat Gözüm, ‘Comparison of Effects of Nursing Care to Problem Solving Training on Levels of Depressive Symptoms in Post Partum Women’, Patient Education and Counseling, 63 (2006), 64–73 <>

Tripathy, Prasanta, Nirmala Nair, Sarah Barnett, Rajendra Mahapatra, Josephine Borghi, Shibanand Rath, and others, ‘Effect of a Participatory Intervention with Women’s Groups on Birth Outcomes and Maternal Depression in Jharkhand and Orissa, India: A Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial.’, Lancet (London, England), 375 (2010), 1182–92 <>

Wang, Shuhong, John R. Moss, and Janet E. Hiller, ‘Applicability and Transferability of Interventions in Evidence-Based Public Health’, Health Promotion International, 21 (2006), 76– 83 <>

World Health Organization, ‘Thinking Healthy: A Manual for Psychosocial Management of Perinatal Depression’, 2015 <> [accessed 6 July 2018]




How to Cite

Rosmawatia, I., & Das, M. (2018). Management of perinatal depression by non-health specialist workers in Indonesia. Journal of Health Technology Assessment in Midwifery, 1(1), 29–34.